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20 12 2013

Realizm (edebiyat)

Realizm (edebiyat) Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi   Başlığın diğer anlamları için Realizm sayfasına bakınız. Realizm ya da gerçekçilik, bir estetik ve edebi kavram olarak 19. yüzyıl ortalarında Fransa'da ortaya çıkmıştır. Nasıl ki romantizm klasizme bir başkaldırı niteliğinde ise gerçekçilik yani realizm, hem klasisizme hem de romantizme bir başkaldırıdır. Amaç, sanatı klasik ve romantik akımların yapaylığından kurtarmak, yenilikçi eserler üretmek ve konularını öncelikle yüksek sınıflar ve temalarla ilgili değil, toplumsal sınıflar ve temalar arasından seçmekti. Realizmin amacı, günlük yaşamın önyargısız, bilimsel bir tutumla incelenmesi ve edebi eserlerin bir bilim adamının klinik bulgularına benzer nesnel bir bakış açısıyla ortaya konmasıdır. Örneğin, realizmin iki güçlü temsilcisi Gustave Flaubert'in Madame Bovaryadlı romanı ile Emile Zola'nın Nana adlı romanında cinsellik ve şiddet edebi bir mikroskop altında incelenerek olanca çıplaklığıyla ortaya konulmuştur. Realizm felsefesinin altında güçlü bir felsefi belirlenimcilik yatar. Fransız edebiyatında Flaubert ile Zola'nın yanı sıra Honore de Balzac, Stendhal, Rusya’da Lev Tolstoy, İvan Sergeyeviç Turgenyev, Dostoyevski, İngiltere'de Charles Dickens ve Anthony Trollope, Amerika'da Theodore Dreiser,Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck İrlanda'da James Joyce realizmin önemli temsilcileridir. Realizm, 20. yüzyıl romanının gelişimini de önemli ölçüde etkilemiştir. Realizmin önemli temsilcileri[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir] Honoré de Balzac ... Devamı

12 09 2010

Italian Renaissance GOZGOZTEPE

Italian Renaissance Renaissance Topics Architecture Dance Literature Music Painting Philosophy Science Technology Warfare Regions England France Germany Italy Netherlands Northern Europe Poland Spain The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 13th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. The term renaissance is in essence a modern one that came into currency in the 19th century, in the work of historians such as Jacob Burckhardt. Although the origins of a movement that was confined largely to the literate culture of intellectual endeavor and patronage can be traced to the earlier part of the 14th century, many aspects of Italian culture and society remained largely Medieval; the Renaissance did not come into full swing until the end of the century. The word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means “rebirth”, and the era is best known for the renewed interest in the culture of classical antiquity after the period that Renaissance humanists labelled the Dark Ages. These changes, while significant, were concentrated in the elite, and for the vast majority of the population life was little changed from the Middle Ages. Contents [hide] 1 Era 2 Cultural achievements 3 Origins 3.1 Northern and Central Italy in the Late Middle Ages 3.2 Thirteenth-century 3.3 Fourteenth-century collapse 4 Development 4.1 Internation... Devamı

12 09 2010


Ballet Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. Ballet is a formalized kind of performance dance, which originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France, England, and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with most of the audience seated on tiers or galleries on three sides of the dancing floor. It has since become a highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary. It is primarily performed with the accompaniment of classical music. It has been influential as a form of dance globally and is taught in ballet schools around the world, which use their own cultures and societies to inform the art. Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed and performed by trained artists, include mime and acting, and are set to music (usually orchestral but occasionally vocal). It is a poised style of dance that incorporates the foundational techniques for many other dance forms. This type of dancing is very hard to achieve and takes much practice to master. It is best known in the form of Late Romantic Ballet or Ballet Blanc, which preoccupies itself with the female dancer to the exclusion of almost all else, focusing on pointe work, flowing, precise acrobatic movements, and often presenting the dancers in the conventional short white French tutu. Later developments include expressionist ballet, Neoclassical ballet, and elements of Modern dance. The etymology of the word "ballet" is related to the art form's history. The word ballet comes from the French and was borrowed into English around the 17th century. The French word in turn has its origins in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo (dance). Ballet ultimately traces back to Latin ballare, meaning to dance.[1] Contents [hide] 1 History ... Devamı

12 09 2010


Paris Opera The Paris Opera (French: Opéra de Paris) is the primary opera company of Paris, France. Currently the official name is the Opéra national de Paris. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra and shortly thereafter became the Académie royale de Musique. The company primarily produces operas at its modern theatre Opéra Bastille which opened in 1989, and ballets at the older Palais Garnier which opened in 1875. Front of the Palais Garnier illuminated at night Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 The Opéra under Louis XIV 1.2 Company names after the Revolution 2 List of official company names 3 List of principal venues 4 Other Parisian opera companies and theatres 5 See also 6 References 7 Cited sources 8 Other sources 9 External links //   [edit] History [edit] The Opéra under Louis XIV Pierre Perrin On 28 June 1669 Louis XIV granted a 12-year privilege to Pierre Perrin to set up the Académie d'Opéra for the performance of operas in French. He was charged with making opera better known to the public not only in Paris but in the other towns and cities of the kingdom of France. Since its only financial resources came from box-office receipts without a royal subsidy, the Opéra was granted the privilege of putting on "pièces de théâtre en musique", with a ban on anyone else doing the same without gaining authorization from its owners.[1] Perrin converted the Bouteille tennis court into a rectangular facility with provisions for stage machinery and scenery changes and a capacity of about 1200 spectators. His first ... Devamı

12 09 2010


Grand Opera Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events. The term is particularly applied to certain productions of the Paris Opéra from the late 1820s to around 1850, and has sometimes been used to designate the Paris Opéra itself, but is also used in a broader application in respect of contemporary or later works of similar monumental proportions from France, Germany, Italy and other European countries.[1] Degas (1876): "Ballet of the Nuns" from Meyerbeer's Robert le diable (1831); one of the earliest sensations of Grand Opera Contents [hide] 1 Origins 2 Ballet in Grand Opera 3 France 3.1 The first Grand Operas (1828–1829) 3.2 The golden age of Grand Opera — 1830–1850 3.3 Grand Operas of the 1850s and 1860s 3.4 Late French Grand Operas 3.5 Decline of French Grand Opera 3.6 French Grand Opera today 4 Grand Opera outside France 4.1 Italy 4.2 Germany 5 Bibliography 6 Notes //   [edit] Origins Paris at the turn of the 19th century drew in many composers, both French and foreign, and especially those of opera. Several Italians working during this period including Luigi Cherubini demonstrated that the use of recitative was suited for the powerful dramas that were being written. Others, such as Gaspare Spontini, wrote works to glorify Napoleon. These operas were composed on a suitably grand scale f... Devamı